Persons Day in Canada
October 18 marks the day in 1929 when the historic decision to include women in the legal definition of “persons” was handed down by Canada’s highest court of appeal. This gave women the right to be appointed to the Senate of Canada and paved the way for women’s increased participation in public and political life.
The History of the Persons Case
In Canada, the British North America Act (BNA Act) of 1867 set out the powers and responsibilities of the provinces and of the federal government. The Act used the word “persons” when referring to more than one person and “he” when referring to one person. Many argued the Act implicitly stated that only a man could be a person, which prevented women from participating fully in politics or affairs of state.
Governments also used the “persons” argument to keep women out of important positions. If the word “person” applied only to men, then the stipulation that only “qualified persons” could be appointed to the Senate of Canada meant that only men could be appointed.
In 1927, five women – who have since become known as the Famous Five – launched a legal challenge that would mark a turning point for equality rights in Canada. Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney, Irene Parlby and Henrietta Muir Edwards were journalists, politicians, reformers and activists from Alberta who asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the following question: does the word “person” in Section 24 of the BNA Act include female persons? After five weeks of debate, the Supreme Court decided that the word “person” did not include women.
Although shocked by the Court’s decision, the Famous Five did not give up the fight and took their case to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council of Great Britain in London, which was then Canada’s highest court of appeal.
On October 18, 1929, Lord Sankey, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain, announced the decision:
“The exclusion of women from all public offices is a relic of days more barbarous than ours And to those who would ask why the word ‘person’ should include females, the obvious answer is, why should it not?”
With this milestone victory, the Famous Five not only won the right for women to serve in the Senate, but also helped pave the way for women to participate equally in all aspects of life in Canada.
100th Anniversary of Women’s First Right to Vote in Canada
2016 marks 100 years since women were allowed to vote in a provincial election. On January 28, 1916, Manitoba became the first province in Canada to extend the franchise to women voters.
It all started in Manitoba
Two years before, on January 27, 1914, a large group of women and men, many members of the Political Equality League of Manitoba, appeared before the Manitoba Legislative Assembly to make the case for women’s suffrage. They were led by well-known writer and suffragist Nellie McClung, who would later be known for her role in the groundbreaking Persons Case. McClung asked the members of the legislature: “Have we not the brains to think? Hands to work? Hearts to feel? And lives to live?” She went on, “Do we not bear our part in citizenship? Do we not help build the Empire? Give us our due!”
In December 1915, the group delivered a petition containing almost 40,000 signatures in support of women’s right to vote. Premier T.C. Norris delivered the petition to the first session of the 15th Legislature, followed soon after by a Bill to Amend the Manitoba Elections Act. On January 28, 1916, the Lieutenant Governor passed into law the right of Manitoba women to vote – and to put themselves forward as candidates – in provincial elections.
On March 14, Saskatchewan and Alberta passed into law An Act to Amend the Saskatchewan Election Act, and on April 19, Alberta passed the Equal Suffrage Statutory Law Amendment Act S.A. 1916 c.5, both jurisdictions thereby granting women the right to vote and stand for election. On May 24, 1918, following passage of An Act to confer the Electoral Franchise upon Women S.C. 1918, c. 20, women in Canada was granted the federal franchise. It would be another 10 years before the Famous Five won the Persons Case Victory, and it was not until 1940 that Quebec women won the right to vote in provincial elections. In 1960 First Nations were allowed to vote without giving up treaty rights.
Peace (the real one) is rarely achieved by arms. For a world without war or conflict, nothing has been invented better than respect, love and tolerance. With this irrefutable observation, thousands of Jewish, Muslim, Christian and atheist women have decided to join forces in the struggle for peace in Israel and Palestine.
Women wage peace by the thousands
This movement has been called Women wage peace. Its first act was on, 19 octobre dernier huge crowd of white-clad women marched peacefully in front of the Israeli prime minister’s residence. Of all denominations and political stripes, they were there for one thing: to demand peace.
Since then, many other similar marches have been held throughout Israel, Palestine and the West Bank. The aim is for a genuine dialogue between the different parties in conflict. An apolitical approach that, little by little, takes on a real scale, as evidenced by these beautiful photos!
Pacifism is not popular with the media. However, this initiative deserves a closer look. Better yet, she desserves to be encouraged!
By Axel Leclercq
As reported in the 2017-2018 Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) Index, Iran ranked 116 out of 153 countries in terms of legal discrimination.
The world bank’s database, “Women, Business, and the Law” lists 23 restrictions in Iranian law that restricts married women in Iranian law.
- Women cannot get a job or pursue a profession in the same way a man can.
- They cannot be ensured of equal pay for equal work.
- There are no laws to restrain gender discrimination in hiring.
- A married woman cannot leave the country without her husband’s permission. This includes “applying for a passport, traveling outside the home, choosing where to live.
- A woman’s testimony as a witness is worth half that of a man, in compliance with the sharia basis of the legal system.
- In all public places, women must wear a hijab (headscarf) and loose fitting clothing (usually a chador, or loose coat, is required). Modesty requirements are enforced by the morality police.
- Polygamy and temporary marriage are permitted for men (up to four wives are allowed, subject to certain restrictions), but not for women.
- Women are frequently subject to honour killings. In cases where the father kills his daughter, he is not liable for the death penalty, but only for imprisonment. When someone is murdered, the family of the victim can forgive the murderer.
- Women have no legal protection against domestic violence or sexual harassment by anyone, and the constitution has no non-discrimination clause with gender as a protected category.
- The Iranian Civil Code confers power on a husband to prevent his wife from taking any job found to be incompatible with the family interest or the dignity of the husband or his wife.
The burqa is the most covering Islamic veil.
It is designed to cover women from head to toe and has a grid of fabric at eye level allowing them to see. Although this style of burqa is often associated with women in Afghanistan and some tribal areas of Pakistan, a recent photo of students wearing burqas at a school in Mardan district, Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (KP), has caused an outcry on Pakistani social media and fueled criticism of growing conservatism in schools.
According to information, Muzafar Shah, a former member of the district council affiliated with the ruling Pakistan Tehreek e Insaf (PTI), distributed 90 Burqas to female students. The city councillor said his action was inspired by the recent directive by Ziaullah Bangash, the provincial education adviser, which ordered schoolgirls to respect purdah.
(They are having thoughts of the western world and must be shown to act properly; the practice of isolating women will solve this problem).
The Drive to make mandatory for girls to wear burqa is in full swing in KPK. A former district member of PTI Muzaffar Shah distributed shuttlecock burqas among students of Govt Middle School Cheena, Rustam District Mardan.
Should women obey men?
Author: Professor Joyce Harper
Global Women Connected
In my travels around the world I frequently see the inequality of men and women, and how in many countries, the woman is a second class citizen. We have previously written about the worth of a female child, honor killings, the good wife guide and many other topics on gender equality (search gender equality in the search category) .
So I wanted to write about women obeying men. When I put this in google, I was shocked to find that all the top hits were to sites that said women SHOULD obey men.
There are numerous religious sites on this topic, including the top 10 bible reasons why a women must submit to her man. According to the web site Jesus is saviour – feminism is evil and the Holy Spirit says, “Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the savior of the body. Therefore as the church is subject to Christ. So let the wives be to their own husbands in everything.”(Ephesians 5:24).
According to Islam Question and Answers, “Islam made the husband the protector and maintainer of the wife and gave him the responsibility of heading the household, because he is more perfect in rational thinking than her in most cases. This means that it is obligatory for her to obey him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means” [al-Nisaa’ 4:34]”.
In January this year, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Toledo, Braulio Rodriguez, told his congregation that wives could avoid being hit by their husbands by doing what they are told. The Archbishop was quoted as saying that domestic violence happens because women do not obey men.
A self help guide in the USA became a best seller a few years ago – the Re-education Of The Female, by first-time author Dante Moore who suggests that women should wear sexy clothes whilst cooking and cleaning and obey their men. You can read the reviews on Amazon yourself – but here is a quote from one “This unattractive, overweight and seriously immature male has obviously never been in a decent relationship in his short life, and is a true testament to the theory that most males, no matter how bad they look, think they are entitled to supermodels.”
In the UK marriage ceremony, women used to say ‘obey’ but this is rarely included in 2016.
A few verse from the bible.
I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet.
To the woman he said, “I will surely multiply your pain in childbearing; in pain you shall bring forth children. Your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you.”
The women should keep silent in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be in submission, as the Law also says.
Then the Lord God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper fit for him.”
After reading this article there’s one thing in common for all the religions, Man wrote it to his needs back in the barbaric days. I strongly believe they were afraid to be overtaken by women and by creating these holy laws they brain washed not only women but men also. We are no longer living in the barbaric days and changes are due to happen. You are allowed to questions the Bible or the Quran. My God loves everybody he does not believe in discrimination, the right to beat your wife to show authority or to have a religion brain wash your mind that you must kill to protect it.
The day will come when all women will be equal to man if not better, free from man’s past and present ignorance.
The future of our children depends greatly on us. We must educate all the children of the world, equality, freedom of speech, the right to make the world a better place to live in.
What we do now will make life better for our children to understand and live together in Peace World Wide.